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Karyotyping was done using a standard G-banding technique. Sequencing, Manuscript preparation D. Methylation analysis of idiopathic recurrent spontaneous miscarriage cases reveals aberrant imprinting at H19 ICR in normozoospermic individuals. Effect of tamoxifen treatment on global and insulin-like growth factor 2-H19 locus-specific DNA methylation in rat spermatozoa and its association with embryo loss. Coexistence of intracellular and membrane bound progesterone receptor in human testis. The protocol for ovarian hyperstimulation, oocyte retrieval, ICSI and embryo culture has been detailed elsewhere [ 9 , 29 ].

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Molecular profiling of the human testis reveals stringent pathway-specific regulation of RNA expression following gonadotropin suppression and progestogen treatment.

Data of sperm counts, fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate were available for subjects. Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men: PROGINS is a polymorphic variant in the PR gene and has been shown to act as a risk-modulating factor in several gynaecological disorders including s8655l [ 30323441 ].

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The pregnancy rates were half in the group with the T2 allele as compared to T1 allele. Although the differences observed in the frequency of this polymorphism in fertile and infertile subjects is statistically significant, considering the low prevalence of the polymorphic allele, a larger sample size will be required to determine if the SNP has any association with the fertility status.

In conclusion, within the limited cohort of Indian individuals, genetic alterations in the PR gene do not seem to contribute towards the aetiology of male infertility or ART outcome. The results of the present study demonstrate that the PR gene variations are not associated with male infertility and the PROGINS polymorphism has no association with sperm counts.

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World Health Organization, Geneva. G C, STrs Exon 4: PRs are also detected in testis of other mammals [ 172025 ] suggesting that progesterone may regulate spermatogenesis. A genome-wide association study in Chinese men identifies three risk loci for non-obstructive azoospermia.

Growing body of evidences suggest that mature sperm provide appropriate epigenetic marks that drive specific genes toward activation and contribute to the pluripotent state of the embryonic cells [ 19 ]; in addition it also provides several classes of non-coding RNAs including miRNAs, lncRNAs, novel elements and mRNAs that are likely to be essential for early development [ 636 ].

While there are reports that have s856l these findings [ 523 ], the influence of maternal genome on embryonic growth cannot be underestimated. Effect of tamoxifen treatment on global and insulin-like growth factor 2-H19 locus-specific DNA methylation in rat spermatozoa and its association with embryo loss.

Assessment of sperm counts, fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate Data was available for subjects, who approached for assisted reproduction for biological parenthood. In all these cases, the female partner was clinically normal with no apparent cause of infertility and only good quality oocytes were considered for microinjection. Y chromosome microdeletions and alterations of spermatogenesis. Functional role of progestin and the progesterone receptor in an suppression of spermatogenesis in rodents.

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At this conjuncture, it is important to note that the fertilization rates and embryo quality observed in the two groups are comparable to that routinely observed in our clinic [ 929 ]. Grade 2 embryos were defined as blastomeres of equal size with minor cytoplasmic fragments or blebs. Age-dependent expression and localization of the progesterone receptor in the boar testis. Authors contributions Sanjukta Sen: Therefore, there is a need to identify more susceptibility loci in infertile men in order to determine the etiology of this yet enigmatic condition.

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The sperm counts, fertilization rate, embryo quality or pregnancy rates were not different in individuals with or without PROGINS allele.

Amongst the several hormonal factors, progesterone has recently emerged as one of the factors that affect spermatogenesis. Capsule Genetic variations ancc progesterone receptor gene do not associate with male infertility or ICSI outcome.

Genetic causes of spermatogenic failure. Infertile subjects were selected based on the sperm counts. Syst Biol Reprod Med. Stability, delivery and functions of human sperm RNAs at fertilization.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Data collection, Data s865k, Manuscript preparation Jyotsna Gokral: Individuals with karyotype abnormalities or Yq microdeletions were excluded from the study. Association of progesterone receptor polymorphism with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss in Taiwanese Han population.

PCR was performed at an optimized annealing temperature and has been detailed elsewhere [ 1540 ].